Wednesday, 16 August 2017

Cheese Making





Shared by Celine Woon
Guest Blogger

Stopping Light



As long as the sun shines, it’s always there following you around to wherever you go. You can see it, but you can’t touch it. What is it?


We have shadows because light moves in a certain way. It travels outward from its source, like the sun or torch light. As long as nothing is in the way, the light waves move in one direction at a speed of 300,000 kilometers per second. 


That is like traveling around the world seven times in one second! Nothing travels faster than light waves. But when some of the light waves hit something – you, or a tree – they are stopped. Then, on the other side of the thing that stopped the light waves, there is a dark space – a shadow. 


Things in a dark room have no shadows because there are no light waves traveling through the room. And on cloudy days, things have no shadows because the clouds break up the light waves from the sun. The clouds soak up some of the waves and scatter the rest of them in all directions. When the light waves scatter and bounce instead of moving in one direction, no shadows are formed. 


You can see things in your room at night because of the light from the bulb. Try being in a thick jungle in the middle of the night, and you’ll realize the importance of light for our sense of sight. That is why some species of fish very deep down in the ocean do not have eyes because the sunlight doesn’t reach those depths.




Experiment: 
Make a shadow clock 

Materials: 
paper plate, spool, pencil

Steps:
1.    Glue the spool to the center of the paper plate.
2.    Place a pencil in the hole of the spool, with the point up.
3.    Place the paper under the sun early in the morning.
4.    Draw a line down the shadow the pencil makes on the paper plate.
5.    Write the hour next to the line you traced.
6.    Repeat steps 4 and 5 after every hour until the sun goes down.







Shared by Surain A. Victor
Guest Blogger

Monday, 24 July 2017

Why Cooking Is A Science?


 (Not your cliché add yeast to the dough kind of science)


Cooking has always been a fascination of mine since I was about 11. Back then, all I knew was instant noodles and sunny side ups… I recalled making a “special soup” with an exotic ingredient… SUPER RINGS! Alah you know, that ring-shaped, artificial cheese flavored childhood snack that would smother your fingers with orange hued powder… (you’re eating it wrong if you don't lick your fingers afterward).

What would a naïve mind associate something with deliciousness after all? Chickadees of course! The broth simmered with colors that looked as if it were contaminated with an oil slick. But my parents tested it with a twisted grin…

Credit image: tiffinbiru.blogspot.com

Eating is a necessity, but cooking is an art. Over the years, my passion bloom. With every mirepoix that had been sautéed to perfection, to every three sekawan that had been 'tumis' till 'pecah minyak,' I owe it all to my family, especially the sous chef of the household, my skillful grandmother. She could tell apart 'gulai kampung' from 'gulai Mamak'! My parents, thankfully, never thought of my expenditure on foods as a waste, but an investment of some sort… and that's how parents should be. Nurture your child(ren) in their mold!

Below are Makwan’s cooking tips and hacks:

1.    If a soup or stew was made salty, simply add cuts of potatoes.
2.    Too spicy? Add sugar.
3.    Tumis your sambal with a teaspoon of sugar results with a sweeter and glossier finish.
4.    Onions = sweetness
5.    Out on the bazaar and can't choose Tepung Pelita? Pick the ones with less shiny/matte surface.
6.    Add salt as you ‘menumbuk dalam lesung'.


7.    Slice your meats against the grains.
8.    Wants your beef to tender ASAP? Add a metal spoon… (?!)
9.   Can’t keep up with bruising apples? Sprinkle salt on the cut surface(es). *Also works with lemon juice.
10.    Remove the odor of shellfish and seafood or even chicken with tamarind paste (asam jawa) or flour.
11.    Sear your chicken!
12.    Use freshly squeezed 'santan' or coconut milk for your rendang.
13.    Know your oils!


Now, on what purpose do I share this tips and tricks? 

Ahhh (French accent)…of course, this has something BIG to do with the title of this piece of writing.

You see, here are the reasons as to why these are done through the lens of science!


1.    Boiling starches such as potatoes absorb salt very well. Which is why adding chunks of potatoes to a salty stew or soup or even Rendang perhaps will lessen the apparent saltiness of the dish.

2.    Adding sugar or cinnamon to spicy foods helps tone down the spiciness


3.    Onion contains sugars when raw, but they are pretty much indigestible and tasteless. 

4.    With caramelization, complex sugars in onion split into simpler ones, which are the ones we can taste, by the action of heat. Therefore, fried onion tastes sweeter, and so does tomato, etc.
When sugar cane crops are ready to be harvested, dry leaves are burnt in situ to increase the yield of sucrose by the same effect: a fraction of the existing complex sugars are turned into sucrose (saccharine).

5.    *just a tip to help you out next Ramadhan ;)

6.    By adding salt as you grind your mortar and pestle increases the friction, results in a faster and finer product. Often, a layer of cloth or rag is placed underneath the mortar to absorb the shock or friction. (so your tile or counter won't crack LoL). In physics, we apply this principle in reducing momentum. By adding something (such as cloth, or spring) that will elongate the time of impact, thus reducing the force of momentum.

(p=mass x velocity…if velocity decreases, so does the momentum)

This is also why we see cars with lengthy bumpers, which is to spare the lives of passenger(s) in the case of an accident. 


7.    By cutting the meat this way helps shorten the muscle fiber. Also, by cutting your meat into bite size pieces, you would also increase the surface area for reaction. Thus, making it react (cook) faster. 

8.    Fact or fiction? Ye to be debunked… Although in Cambodia, where the lack of anemia is a real epidemic that causes lethargy and many more disease, a small fish made of iron in cooking to dilute the iron or 'zat besi' into the dish as to provide sufficient and optimal nutrient intake. 


9.    When an apple is being cut or dropped, the cells are ruptured thus releasing enzymes that would react with air (oxygen) to produce melanin, a substance also found in the human body that makes up the colors of the complexion. This process is known as oxidation. By adding salt or acidic substances (that have lower PH levels) reverses the process, thus making the apple stay fresh... (in chemistry reverse oxidation is known as reduction).

10.    The Japanese deserve much respect in their food preparation. They are so meticulous and put hygiene at the paramount of importance. Even the guts of a Fugu, a blowfish (happens to be one of the deadliest yet an epitome of opulence in Japanese cuisine) will be rinsed and cut to pieces before finally being discarded. In most of the Japanese food preparation videos on YouTube like cooking with the dog and iron chef, they rinse their chicken meat and seafood in starch solution… this is because starch also possesses the property of absorbing the 'hanyir' and 'hamis'. As a substitute, you could also use lemon juice and salt.. unless you have a traditional Malay kitchen where 'asam jawa' or 'limau nipis' is a staple; you may use them instead!

11.    I recalled last year, as my grandmother attended a traditional Malay-styled wedding, she helped out in the kitchen to prepare Gulai Ayam, a traditional stew of chicken braised in coconut milk. She was furious as she saw the cook only drop the raw chicken cuts straight into the bubbling pot of 'kuah' Gulai. It is best to firstly sear the chicken along with the aromatics before finally adding water/coconut milk. This is to make the chicken more fragrant, -she said.



12.    Opt for freshly squeezed coconut milk instead of the ones sold in boxes or cartons..this is because the latter might not have more fat content.. this is essential as to make the rendang creamier and last longer. (if you want to make rendang, you might as well do it right!)

13.    Some people use olive oil to deep fry. This is improper as olive oil have a low-smoke point –which means they burn quickly (unlike palm or sunflower oil) thus, it is better to consume them as dressing on salad or for a light sauté. Besides, this Mediterranean oil is also savored for their sweetness.  There is also peanut oil (perfect for frying), sesame oil (seasoning in a majority of East Asian cuisine ), grape seed oil ( despite having a high smoke point, they are mainly used as dressing for their light and clean flavor ) coconut oil (moisturizer in cosmetics ) and much more!


In conclusion, never let it be said that cooking is not science! (This goes out the Middle Eastern lady that said “cooking is not science” to my mother at the science festival) Also, science is a way of thinking much more than it is the body of knowledge- Carl Sagan. So we should all appreciate science as a branch of understanding to make this world a better place.



Shared by Syafiq Zamri
Guest Blogger

Wednesday, 19 July 2017

Selesaikan Kod Rahsia Ini!


Ketahui rahsia 'Caesar Cipher'

Cetak dan gunting rajah di bawah dan cuba untuk selesaikan kod rahsia berikut. Selamat mencuba!


Karnival Matematik 2017 di Petrosains Playsmart kini kembali!
Ikuti pautan di bawah untuk sebarang maklumat terkini dan aktiviti-aktiviti yang dijalankan sepanjang Karnival Matematik di Playsmart!

http://www.petrosains.com.my/playsmart/programs.html
www.facebook.com/PetrosainsPlaySmart

Wednesday, 5 July 2017

Tick Bite = Forced Veganism?


What if I told you that you couldn’t eat your favorite beef rendang during Hari Raya? From extravagant medium rare steaks and even a simple cheeseburger. All in reach definitely but for the victims or the Lone Star Tick…they are playing a game of Russian roulette with each bite that just might be their last.

The Lone Star tick
Credit: Wikimedia Commons

Throughout history, ticks have always been the natural enemy of all blood bags both cold and warm blooded ones. Ticks are a parasitic vector for many diseases such as Lyme disease, spotted fever, tick paralysis and now an allergy inducer towards red meat or more specifically: the Alpha-gal sugar compound found within.


A man suffering from Alpha-Gal allergy
Credit: Wikimedia Commons
Spotted fever victim
Credit: Wikimedia Commons
                                                      


Don’t let its women empowering worthy name of Alpha-Gal to fool you though, according to Vanderbilt University Medical Center: the allergy can cause swelling, hives, breathing problems, a drop in blood pressure or even anaphylactic shock after eating red meat or dairy.  This can be rather troublesome and dangerous because the symptoms do not appear immediately but rather within 8 hours or so.

Credit: Wikimedia Commons


Although there is no cure, medication such as epinephrine which is a first line treatment for anaphylaxis shock that has saved many from being rushed to the ER or worst, an excruciating death. Now the question on everybody’s mind, how exactly does a small tick bite cause an allergic reaction towards red meat?

Epinephrine pen
Credit: Wikimedia Commons



Inside the saliva of ticks contains Alpha-gal which once transferred to a human body, our immune system will identify them as harmful external substances and thus create antibodies to help protect the system. Unknowingly causing a bigger problem for us in the long run.

To all the vegetarians out there who think you're fine just because you don't worship meat like the rest of us, think again! Your everyday products could be a possible seizure waiting to happen if they contain ingredients such as dairy, animal fats and gelatin. In other words, chocolate, ice cream, marshmallows, cheeses and even several medicines such as tetanus and even gelatin based tablets will cause an allergic reaction.

Goodbye hot cocoa cups with marshmallows
Credit: Wikimedia Commons

This strange problem was discovered several years ago in the East Coast of the United States which has been rapidly spreading alongside the increasing number of unwilling converted vegetarians. These pesky little creatures thrive in grassy and humid areas, something where we in Malaysia are known for. Although ticks can’t swim, all it takes is a single ‘accident’ to change our entire way of life. #TickAboutIt

                                       


Glossary of terms
Russian Roulette: The practice of loading a bullet into one chamber of a revolver, spinning the cylinder, and then pulling the trigger while pointing the gun at one's own head.

Vector: An organism an organism, typically a biting insect or tick, that transmits a disease or parasite from one animal or plant to another.

East Coast: The eastern seaboard of the US, especially the narrow corridor from Boston to Washington, DC.

References
https://www.forbes.com/sites/carmendrahl/2017/06/22/this-is-what-we-know-about-how-the-lone-star-tick-causes-meat-allergies/#711e38c153aa

http://acaai.org/allergies/types/food-allergies/types-food-allergy/meat-allergy

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/06/tick-bite-meat-allergy-spreading-spd/

https://news.vanderbilt.edu/2014/02/20/red-meat-allergies-likely-result-of-lone-star-tick/






Shared by David Mok
Guest Blogger